Justin, Epitome of Pompeius Trogus (1886/2003). Prologi.



These things are contained in the first volume.2 The imperium3 of the Assyrians from King Ninus down to Sardanapallus: after whom it was transferred by Arbaces to the Medes, down to their last king, Astyages. He was driven from the throne by his grandson, Cyrus, and the Persians assumed power. Cyrus attacked King Croesus of Lydia, whom he defeated and captured. At this point there is a digression on the geography of the Aeolic and Ionian cities and on the origins of the Lydians, and in Italy of the Etruscans. After Cyrus, his son Cambyses conquered Egypt. Here are recalled the origins of the Egyptian cities. After Cambyses died, Darius killed the Magi, acquired the throne of Persia and, after capturing Babylon, embarked on his Scythian wars.


These things are contained in the second volume. The geography of Scythia and Pontus, and the origins of Scythia up to the war, in which Darius was driven out: who after this flight made war on Greece, through Datis and Tissaphernes [as his generals], which the Athenians alone resisted. Here are recalled the origins of Athens and [an account of] its kings down to the tyranny of Pisistratus, after the extinction of which they defeated the Persians at Marathon. After the death of Darius his son Xerxes brought war into Greece:4 and the origins of the Thessalians are recalled: after the expulsion of Xerxes from Greece, the war was carried into Asia by the Athenians, [where it continued] until the death of Xerxes.


These things are contained in the third volume. After Xerxes' death, his son Artaxerxes' vengeance on his father's murderer, Artabanus, and his war with the man responsible for the seccession of Egypt; and in the first place his general Achaemenes was defeated, and then Egypt was recaptured by Bagabaxus. Then how the Greeks after making peace with the king waged wars among themselves. There are recalled the origins of the Peloponnesians: how they were occupied by the descendants of Hercules, a Dorian people. Next the Argolian and Messanian wars and the alliance between the tyrants of Sicyon and Corinth. The war of Crisa and how the Athenians fought first with the Boeotians and then with the Peloponnesians.


Sicilian affairs are contained in the fourth volume, from the ultimate origin down to the destruction at Syracuse of the Athenian fleet.


These things are contained in the fifth volume. The war between the Athenians and the Spartans, which is called Deceleican, up to the capture of Athens. How the 30 tyrants were driven from Athens. The war which the Spartans waged in Asia with Artaxerxes because of the assistance they gave to Cyrus. Here is recalled in a  digression the war fought by Cyrus and the Greeks who fought under him with his brother.


These things are contained in the sixth volume. The war waged in Asia by the Spartans, led by Dercylides and Agesilaus, against the Persian prefects, down to the naval battle at Cnidus: after their defeat the Athenians regained their imperium. Then the Corinthian and Boeotian Wars, in which the Spartans lost their empire when they were defeated at Leuctra and Mantinea. Then, in Thessaly, the establishment of the hegemony of Jason of Pherae, and of Alexander of Pherae after him, and its extinction. Then the social war against the Athenians by the people of Chios, Rhodes and Byzantium. Here there is a transition to Macedonian history.


In the seventh volume are contained [an account of] the origins of Macedonia and its kings, from Caranus, the founder of the race, down to Philip the Great: and of the exploits of Philip himself to the capture of the city of Mothone. The origins of the Illyrians and the Paeonians is also added in a digression.


In the eight volume are contained the exploits of Philip the Great after the capture of the city of Mothone, from the start of the Phocian War, which they called the Sacred War, down to its end: and inserted here is the war which Philip fought with the cities of Chalcidice, of which he destroyed the most famous, Olynthos. Then the Illyrian kings are defeated by him, and Thrace and Thessaly are subjugated, and Alexander made king at Epirus after deposing Arybbas, and his vain attack on Perinthos.


These things are contained in the ninth volume. How Philip was repulsed from Perinthos. The origins of Byzantium, the siege of which Philip was forced to abandon after being repulsed in order to attack Scythia. Then the affairs of Scythiaare recalled, from the period at which the earlier account had stopped, down to the war which Philip fought with Atheas, king of Scythia. Returning from there he [Philip] waged war in Greece and conquered at Chaeronea. He was preparing for hostilities against Persia and had sent ahead a fleet with his generals aboard, when he was assassinated by Pausanias (who cornered him at his daughter's wedding5) before he could commence the Persian hostilities. Persian affairs are then recalled from Darius Nothus, who was succeeded by his son, Artaxerxes, nicknamed Mnemon. The latter, after defeating his brother, Cyrus, and routing the Spartan fleet at Cnidos through Conon, waged war with Evagoras, king of Cyprus: and [the author] goes over the origins of Cyprus.


Persian affairs are contained in the tenth volume. How Artaxerxes Memnon made peace with the Cypriot king, Evagoras, and made preparations for his war with Egypt in the city of Acre; himself defeated amongst the Cadusi, but went on to punish his officials who were in revolt in Asia, firstly Dotames, prefect6 of Paphlagonia. The origin of the Paphlagonians is recalled, followed by Artaxerxes' punishment of the satrap of the Hellespont, Ariobarzanes, and then, in Syria, of the satrap of Armenia, Orontes. After vanquishing all these, Artaxerxes died, to be succeeded by his son, Ochus. He then having put the nobles to death, captured Sidon. He made war on Egypt three times. After Ochus' death, Arses was king, then Darius, who clashed with Alexander, king ofMacedon.


In the eleventh volume are contained the exploits of Alexander the Great down to the death of Darius King of the Persians, and as a digression the origins and kings of Caria.


In the twelfth volume are contained the Bactrian and Indian wars of Alexander the Great down to the time of his death, with digressions on the activities of his prefect Antipater in Greece, and those of Archidamus, king of the Spartans, and Alexander the Molossian in Italy, where both were destroyed with their armies. Additional information is given on the origins in Italy of the Apulians, the Lucanians, the Samnites, and the Sabines, and on how Zopyrion perished with his army in Pontus.


These things are contained in the thirteenth volume. How on Alexander's death his nobles in the camp distributed among themselves the governorships of the provinces; how the veterans, chosen by him [Alexander] to stay in colonies left them and tried to return to Greece, only to be wiped out by Pithon. The Lamian war which Antipater fought in Greece. The war in which Perdiccas killed King Ariarathes and was killed [himself]. The war in which Eumenes killed Neoptolemus and Crateros. [To which is] added a digression on the origins and kings of the Quirenae.


These things are contained in the fourteenth volume. The war waged between Antigonus and Eumenes; the latter expelled from Cappadocia by Antigonus, and of Arridaeus and Clitos from Lesser Phrygia, after they were defeated in a naval battle in the Hellespont. Again the renewal of the war by Eumenes using the Argyraspids, who was killed after being defeated by Antigonus. Then how, in Macedonia, Cassander, after defeating Polyperchon and recovering Munychia from the defector, Nicanor, besieged Alexander's mother, Olympias, at Pydna and put her to death.


These things are contained in the fifteenth volume. How Demetrius, son of Antigonus, was defeated at Gaza by Ptolemy.  How in Macedonia, Cassander killed one son of King Alexander and how Polyperchon killed the other. How Demetrius defeated Ptolemy with his fleet off Cyprus but was nevertheless forced to raise the seige of Rhodes. The origin of the Rhodians is recalled in a digression. Leaving Rhodes, Demetrius liberated Greece from Cassander. Then his father, Antigonus, waged war with Lysimachus and Seleucus. The affairs of Seleucus are recalled, and of the Indian king, Sandrocottus. How Antigonus died after being defeated in battle and the remnants of his imperium were gathered up by his son. Then the exploits of the Spartan Cleonymus in Corcyra, Illyricum and in Italy: and his loss of Corcyra. King Cassander dies.


These things are contained in the sixteenth volume. How, on the death of Cassander, disagreements arose amongst his sons and Demetrius, called to the support of one of them, killed him and assumed the throne of Macedonia, from which he was soon ejected by Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, after which he transferred the [theatre of] war to Asia, and died after being captured by Seleucus.How Ptolemy died having named his son Philadelphus as his successor.  How Lysimachus, captured in Pontus and released by Dromichaetes, once more seized control of the city-states in Asia formerly in the power of Demetrius, and of Heraclea in Pontus. Then the origins of Bithynia and Heraclea are recalled, and of the tyrants of Heraclea, Clearchus, Satyrus and Dionysius, whose sons Lysimachus put to death and seized the city.


These things are contained in the seventeenth volume.  How Lysimachus had his son Agathocles killed by his stepmother, Arsinoe, fought a war with King Seleucus, in which he was defeated and perished: the contest was the last between the comrades of Alexander. How Seleucus, having lost his troops with Diodorus in Cappadocia, was killed by Ptolemy, the brother of Lysimachus' wife, Arsinoe, and of how Ptolemy, surnamed Ceraunus, was made king in his place by the army and seized Macedonia. Ceraunus negotiated an end to the wars with Antiochus and Pyrrhus, giving support to Pyrrhus so that he could go to the defence of Tarentum against the Romans. Next are recalled the origins of the kings of Epirus down to Pyrrhus, and of Pyrrhus' own exploits before he went to Italy.


In the eighteenth volume are contained the exploits of Pyrrhus of Epirus against the Romans in Italy, and after that war his expedition to Sicily against the Carthaginians. Then a digression on the origins of the Phoenicians, Sidon and Velia, and the exploits of Carthage.


In the nineteenth volume are contained the exploits of the Carthaginians in Africa, thanks to Sabellus Anno, and in Sicily, when they captured Selinus, Acragas, Camerina and Gela. In this war Dionysius the Syracusan seized control of Sicily. The war which the Carthaginians fought against him under Himilco, who in besieging Syracuse lost his army and fleet.


In the twentieth volume are contained the exploits of the father of Dionysius of Sicily. How he drove off the Carthaginians and made war in Italy. Then are recalled the origins of the Veneti, Greeks and Gauls who live in Italy. The career of Dionysius is followed up to the time of his death, and the exploits of Anno the Great in Africa are recounted.


These things are contained in the twenty-first volume.  How, in Sicily, Dionysius the son managed the imperium lost by his father. Driven out by Dion, Dionysius waged war with the Sicilians until he lost his children and his brothers, and then retired to Corinth. How Sicily was freed from war with Carthage by Timoleon. After the latter's death, there was a second revolt and Sosistratus called in the Carthaginians, who then blockaded Syracuse. In this war Agathocles came to power.


These things are contained in the twenty-second volume.  The exploits of Agathocles. How he gained power thanks to the Carthaginians, and afterwards waged war against them, first in Sicily; then, defeated by them, he crossed to Africa, seized the country and killed Ophellas, king of Cyrene. He returned to Sicily once more and took control of the whole island, but went back to Africa and there lost his troops, after which he fled, alone, to Sicily. There, at war again, he both made peace with the Carthaginians and also subjugated the Sicilians who had revolted from him.


These things are contained in the twenty-third volume.  How Agathocles after conquering Sicily made war in Italy against the Bruttii.   The origins of the Bruttii are recalled. After crushing all his foes, the king lost his life in a conspiracy hatched by his son, whom he had disinherited, and his grandson. Then war broke out between Agathocles' foreign troops and the native Sicilians, which caused Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, to come to Sicily.  The wars which Pyrrhus waged there with the Carthaginians and the Mamertini. Returning to Sicily from Italy, Pyrrhus was defeated in battle by the Romans and he returned to Epirus.


These things are contained in the twenty-fourth volume.  The war fought in Asia between Antigonus Gonatas and Antiochus, son of Seleucus.  The war waged in Macedonia by Ptolemy Ceraunus against Monunius the Illyrian and Ptolemy son of Lysimachus; and how Ptolemy stripped his sister Arsinoe of her rule over the cities of Macedonia and of how he himself lost his life in a clash with Belgius, leader of the Gauls. Then the origins of the Gauls are recalled, who occupied  Illyricum; and how they invaded Greece under the leadership of Brennus and wre defeated and destroyed at Delphi.


These things are contained in the twenty-fifth volume.  How Antigonus destroyed the Gauls, then the war which he fought with Apollodorus, the tyrant of Cassandrea. How the Gauls entered Asia and waged war with King Antiochus and Bithynia: where they occupied regions of Tylenus. How, on his return from Italy, Pyrrhus deprived Antigonus of the throne of Macedonia, blockaded Lacedaemon and died at Argos, and how his son Alexander went to war in Illyria with King Mitylus.


These things are contained in the twenty-sixth volume.  [A catalogue of] the Greek cities in which Antigonus Gonatas established his leadership.  How he destroyed the mutinous Gauls at Megara, and killed the Lacedaemonian king, Areus, at Corinth, then his war with Alexander, son of his brother Craterus. How Aratus the leader of Achaea seized Sicyon, Corinth and Megara. How in Syria King Antiochus, surnamed Soter, died after killing one of his sons and naming the other one, Antiochus, king. How in Asia the son of King Ptotemy with his ally Timarchus rebelled against his father. How Antigonus' brother Demetrius died after assuming the rule of Cyrene.  How, on the death of King Antiochus, his son Seleucus Callinicus accepted the kingdom.


These things are contained in the twenty-seventh volume.  Seleucus' war in Syria against Ptolemy Trypho: likewise in Asia against his own brother, Antiochus Hierax, a war in which he was defeated by the Gauls at Ancyra; after they [the Gauls] were defeated at Pergamum by Attalus, they killed Zielas of Bithynia. How Ptolemy captured Adaeus for the second time and had him put to death, and Antigonus defeated Sophron in a naval battle at Andros. How Antiochus, put to flight in Mesopotamia by Callinicus, escaped the clutches of Ariamenes, who was plotting against him, and subsequently escaped from the guards of Trypho; he was killed by the Gauls and his brother Seleucus also died, and Apaturius killed the eldest of Seleucus' sons.


These things are contained in the twenty-eighth volume.  How the people of Epirus killed Laodamia after the death of Alexander, king of Epirus. And a digression on the commotion amongst the Basterni. How King Demetrius of Macedon fled from the Dardani. On his [Demetrius'] death, Antigonus undertook the guardianship of his son, Philip, who [Antigonus] reduced Thessaly and Caria in Asia, helped the Achaeans against the Spartan king, Cleomenes, and captured Sparta. After losing his throne, the Spartan Cleomenes sought refuge in Alexandria and died there. In an excursus the Illyrian War which the Romans fought with Teuta is discussed.


These things are contained in the twenty-ninth volume.  The exploits of King Philip against the Dardani and the Aetolians, then the origins of Crete are recalled. After forming an alliance with this island, Philip clashed with the Illyrians, the Dardani and, once more, with the Aetolians, the latter receiving assistance from the Romans. When the war was finished, Philip attacked Attalus.


These things are contained in the thirtieth volume.  How, on the death of Ptolemy Tryphon, his son Philopator defeated King Antiochus at Raphia, and how Philopator himself died from his desperate love for Agathoclea, leaving a son who was still a minor, against whom Antiochus conspired with Philip, king of Macedon. Then actions of Philip in Asia after he make war on Attalus, returning from where he fought with the Roman generals, Sulpicius and Flamininus, by whom he was defeated; [then] peace. Then there is a transition to the affairs of Antiochus who, after ascending the throne, pursued the rebels Molon into Media  and Achaeus into Asia, whom [Achaeus] he besieged in Sardis, and having pacified upper Asia as far as Bactria, he entered into Roman wars.


These things are contained in the thirty-first volume.  The war which Titus Flamininus and Philopoemen, the leader of the Aetolians, fought with the Lacedaemonian Nabis. Likewise the war fought against Antiochus in Achaea under the consul Acilius and in Asia under Scipio, and Hannibal's eventual flight to the king from Carthage. The war with the Aetolians prosecuted by the same Acilius who had driven Antiochus from Greece.


These things are contained in the thirty-second volume.  The defection of the Spartans and the Messenians from the Achaeans, during which Philopoemen lost his life. The war in Asia against the Gauls, conducted by the Romans under the leadership of Manlius. The animus of King Philip towards the Romans because of the cities taken from him, which led to his putting to death one of his sons, Demetrius, and his incitement of the Basternae, who attempted to cross into Italy. Then a digression is given on Illyrian affairs: how the Gauls who had occupied Illyricum returned once more to Gaul, and on the origins of Pannonia and the progress made by the Dacians because of King Burobustes. The war fought in Asia by King Eumenes against the Gaul, Ortiagontes, against Pharnaces of Pontus and against Prusias, during which the Carthaginian Hannibal gave aid to Prusias. The exploits of Hannibal after the defeat of Antiochus, and his [Hannibal's] death. On the death of Seleucus, son of Antiochus the Great, his brother Antiochus succeeded to the throne.


These things are contained in the thirty-third volume.  How the Romans made war against the king of Macedon, Perseus, son of Philip; on whose capture Epirus was destroyed. The collapse of the unity of the Achaean city-states when antagonism arose between the Achaeans and the Spartans. Further war waged in Macedonia by the Romans against the false Philip.


These things are contained in the thirty-fourth volume.  The Achaean War, which the Romans waged under the leadership of Metellus and Mummius and in which Corinth was destroyed. The war of King Eumenes with the Gallograeci and, in Pisidia, with the Selegenses. The exploits of King Antiochus of Syria and King Ptolemy Epiphanes of Egypt. Ptolemy died leaving two sons, Philometor and Euergetes. First they waged war against Antiochus, which [war] was finished by the Romans, and then between themselves. The elder brother was driven out but restored by the Romans, who divided the kingdom between the two. After the death of Antiochus king of Syria, Demetrius, surnamed Soter, who had been a hostage at Rome, fled secretly and seized Syria and made war with Timarchus, king of the Medes, and Ariarathes, king of Cappadocia. Then the origins of Cappadocia are recalled. How Ariarathes and Orophernes quarrelled over the throne. How, on the death of Eumenes, king of Asia, Attalus replaced him and went to war with the Selegenses and King Prusias.


These things are contained in the thirty-fifth volume.  The pirate-war beteween the Cretans and Rhodians: the rebellion of the people of Cnidus against the Ceramenses. How Alexander, as if the son of Antiochus Epiphanes, was set up against Demetrius Soter, in which war Demetrius was defeated and killed. Then how his elder son, Demetrius, with the help of Ptolemy Philometor (who died in the campaign), defeated Alexander, who had become hated because of his stupidity. How wars then broke out between Demetrius and Diodotus Trypho, and Demetrius being driven from the kingdom of Syria by Trypho. Then he [the author] recalls  the commotion in Upper Asia caused by Araetheus and the Parthian Arsaces.


These things are contained in the thirty-sixth volume.  How Trypho, after driving Demetrius from Syria and the capture [of Demetrius] by the Parthians, made war with his brother Antiochus, surnamed Sidetes. How Antiochus killed Hyrcanus and subjugated the Jews. Then in a digression the origins of the Jews are recalled. How Attalus, king of Asia, subjugated the Thracian Caeni and left as successor to his imperium Attalus Philometor. Finally, on the death of King Philometor, his brother Aristonicus seized the throne of Asia and fought a war with the Romans in which he was taken prisoner.


These things are contained in the thirty-seventh volume.  After the origins of the Pontic kings have been recalled, there is an account of the succession of power in Pontus down to its last king, Mithridates Eupator, and then of how, on assuming the throne, Mithridates subdued Pontus and Paphlagonia before entering his wars with Rome. There is a digression on the origins and the exploits of the kings of the Bosphorus and Colchis.


These things are contained in the thirty-eighth volume.  How Mithridates Eupator's seized Cappadocia, after he killed Arathes, and of Bithynia, after he defeated Nicomedes and Maltinus. How, on the death of Ptolemy Philometor, his brother Physcon assumed the throne of Egypt, the rebellions of the people and then waged war with his sister, Cleopatra, and with Demetrius, king of Syria. Then it is recalled as a digression how Demetrius was captured by the Parthians and how his brother, after defeating Trypho in Syria, made war on the Parthians, only to be destroyed along with his army.


These things are contained in the thirty-ninth volume.  How, when Antiochus Sidetes was killed by the Parthians, his brother Demetrius was released and subsequently recovered the throne of Syria, losing his life when Alexander Zabinaeus was bribed to make war on him: his [Demetrius'] son Antiochus Grypos defeated Zabinaeus and seized the throne: then he fought a war in Syria and Cilicia with his brother Antiochus Cyzicenus. How, on the death of King Ptolemy Physcon, his son Ptolemy Lathyros assumed the throne but was driven from Alexandria to Cyprus by his mother, and how he was later attacked by the same in Syria, after she had replaced him on the throne with his brother, Alexander, until eventually the mother was killed by Alexander and he [Ptolemy] recovered the throne of Egypt. Next comes the history of the reign of Alexander's son, who followed Lamyrus, and his expulsion and replacement by Ptolemy Nothus. How the Jews and Arabs infested Syria with overland bandits, the Cilicians' instigation of a pirate-war at sea, a war which the Romans fought in Cilicia under Marcus Antonius. How Heracleus seized power in Syria after the death of the king.


These things are contained in the fortieth volume.  How, on the death of King Grypos, Cyzicenus lost his life in armed conflict with his [Grypos'] sons, these were then wiped out by Eusebes, the son of Cyzicenus: and how the Armenian Tigranes, with the return of civil war and the extinction of the royal house of the Antiochi, seized Syria, who was soon afterwards defeated and deprived of it by the Romans. How at Alexandria, after the death of Ptolemy Lathyrus, he was replaced on his death by his sons: one was given Cyprus, which the Romans took from him following the proposal of P. Clodius; the other fled to Rome when his arrest was called for during an uprising in Alexandria, and he later regained his imperium thanks to the war fought by Gabinius. On his death his son succeeded who, quarreling with his sister, Cleopatra, murdered Pompey the Great and also went to war with Caesar at Alexandria. How his sister, Cleopatra, succeeded him on the throne, how she embroiled M. Antonius [Antony] in a love affair with her and how, with the conclusion of the battle of Actium, she brought the reign of the Ptolemies to an end.


In the forty-first volume are contained Parthian and Bactrian affairs. How the government was setup in Parthia by King Arsaces. Then his successors Artabanus and Tigranes, surnamed the Divine, by whom Media and Mesopotamia were subjugated. And the geography of Arabia is given as a digression. In Bactrian affairs, however, how the government was set up by King Diodotus: then, during his reign, the occupation of Bactra and Sogdiana by the Scythian tribes, the Saraucae and the Asiani. Some Indian affairs are added, the exploits of the Apollodotus and Menander, their Kings.


In the forty-second volume are contained Parthian affairs. How the prefect of Parthia created by Phrates, Himerus, made war on the Meseni and of his brutal treatment of the people of Babylon and Seleucia: how Phrates was succeeded on the throne by King Mithridates surnamed The Great, who made war on the Armenians. Then the origins and geography of Armenia are recalled. How, after a succession of several different kings in Parthia, Orodes came to the throne, who destroyed Crassus and occupied Syria through his son Pacorus. He [Orodes] was succeeded by Phrates, who went to war both with Antony and with Tiridates. Scythian affairs are added to this. The Asian kings of the Tochari, and the demise of the Saraucae.


In the forty-third volume are contained the origins of the ancient Latins, the topography of the city of Rome and affairs down to Tarquinius Priscus. Then the origins of Liguria and the affairs of Massilia.


In the forty-fourth volume are contained the affairs of Spain and Carthage.

This translation has been made from Otto Seel's text, and J.C.Yardley's excellent and very readable translation consulted (and deferred to).  This translation is made more literal, and hence somewhat less readable than Yardley.  Words in square brackets make the sentence more like English.

J.C.Yardley, Justin: Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus. American Philological Association classical resources series 3.  Scholars Press, Atlanta (1994).  ISBN: 1-55540-950-4

Otto Seel, M. Iuniani Iustini Epitoma Historiarum Philippicarum Pompei Trogi. Stuttgart (1972). ISBN 3-519-01470-X.

1. I have not tried to translate 'prologus' -- summary would be a good choice.  It is not a table of contents in the modern sense, as books at this period (ca. 20AD) had the book as the smallest unit of composition.  Chapters, in the modern sense, do not seem to occur until the 6th century AD.

2. Lit. 'volumen' -- a roll.

3. I saw no point in translating 'imperium' as 'rule' or 'empire', just for the sake of it.

4. Y. omits the sentence up to this point, for some reason.

5. Y.'s very attractive rendering of 'occupatis angustiis'.

6. 'Praefectus': rendered 'satrap' by Y.

This text was translated by Roger Pearse, Ipswich, UK, 2003.  All material on this page is in the public domain - copy freely.
Greek text is rendered using the Scholars Press SPIonic font, free from here.

Early Church Fathers - Additional Texts